Download PDF Copy March 27, 2018
While cigarette smoking has long been on the decline, marijuana use is on the rise and, disproportionately, marijuana users also smoke cigarettes. A new study by researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the City University of New York reports that cannabis use was associated with an increased initiation of cigarette smoking among non-cigarette smokers. They also found adults who smoke cigarettes and use cannabis are less likely to quit smoking cigarettes than those who do not use cannabis. Former smokers who use cannabis are also more likely to relapse to cigarette smoking. Results are published online in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.
The analyses were based on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and responses from 34,639 individuals to questions about cannabis use and smoking status.
"Developing a better understanding of the relationship between marijuana use and cigarette use transitions is critical and timely as cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature death and disease, and use of cannabis is on the rise in the U.S.," said Renee Goodwin, PhD, in the Department of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health, and senior author.
The study suggests that marijuana use--even in the absence of cannabis use disorder (characterized by problematic use of cannabis due to impairment in functioning or difficulty quitting or cutting down on use)--is associated with increased odds of smoking onset, relapse, and persistence. As cannabis use is much more common than cannabis use disorder, its potential impact on cigarette use in the general community may be greater than estimates based on studies of cannabis use disorder alone, according to the researchers.
An earlier study by Goodwin and colleagues showed that the use of cannabis by cigarette smokers had increased dramatically over the past two decades to the point where smokers are more than 5 times as likely as non-smokers to use marijuana daily.
This document has been prepared to educate people about how drugs and alcohol can disrupt the normal functioning of the body and how better nutrition can help diminish some of these biochemical and digestive problems. This document only focuses on one specific component of a comprehensive recovery treatment program—better nutrition. It is not intended to be used as a substitute for a doctor’s advice or as a recovery treatment program.
However, while many adult users opt for e-cigarettes to ease themselves out of their smoking habit, some researchers have raised concerns that teenagers may be using them as a gateway into this very habit. E-cigarette usage seems to be popular among many teenagers, despite the fact that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have banned the sale of such devices to people under 18.
Carcinogens threaten teenagers' health
In order to reach their conclusions, Dr. Rubinstein and team collected and analyzed urine samples from 104 adolescents, aged 16.4 years, on average. Of these, 67 were e-cigarette users, 17 used e-cigarettes as well as traditional ones, and 20 did not smoke or vape (the controls).
Their analysis revealed that the teenagers who vaped had a three times higher concentration of toxic compounds in their bodies than their non-vaping peers. In the case of teenagers who used both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, the concentration of toxic chemicals in the body was three times higher than in the case of adolescents who only vaped. "E-cigarettes," Dr. Rubinstein says, "are marketed to adults who are trying to reduce or quit smoking as a safer alternative to cigarettes. While they may be beneficial to adults as a form of harm reduction, kids should not be using them at all."
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Last year there was almost 7500 incidents and nurse unit manager Susan Harding says it's only gotten worse.
"We'd have at least one incident of violence or aggression each shift every day," Ms Harding said.
A video containing CCTV footage of situations of violence towards hospital staff has been released by the Royal Melbourne Hospital.
To fight back, Emergency Department staff has produced a shocking video Help Us, Help You which will play in the waiting area to raise awareness of occupational violence. The video shows CCTV footage of patients throwing chairs, smashing doors and other examples of aggression against hospital workers.
There were 7438 'code grey' incidents in 2017 - an 85 per cent increase in just four years. There were also nine 'cold black' situations, which involve aggressive patients with a weapon.
The most common reports included physical violence, threatening behaviour and harassment.
Melbourne hospital staff release horrifying video of emergency room violence
Staff at Royal Melbourne Hospital have released a horrifying video showing the violence faced by those working in the emergency department.
The middle-class trend of “wine o’clock” is increasing the rate of heart problems, liver disease and even alcohol-induced dementia.
And doctors warn people who enjoy a “few glasses” of wine at home each evening could be suffering from a form of chronic alcoholism.
While most responsible drinking advertising targets young people, there is also a growing concern about people in their 50s and 60s binge drinking. A glass or two ... or several more.
NSW Health data reveals 27.3 per cent of people aged 55-64 consume alcohol at levels that pose a long-term risk to their health.
While a few glasses of wine with dinner might be seen as “culturally sophisticated”, Australian Medical Association NSW president Dr Brad Frankum said there was a lack of awareness about the danger of home drinking.
“They don’t associate binge drinking with the cultured act of a glass of wine at night.
“But the evidence is clear that daily drinking increases risk of pancreatitis (and) liver disease and it contributes to obesity and weight problems, which cause a range of cardiovascular issues.”