KRISTEN NICHOLS, Hemp Industry Daily May 4, 2018
On Thursday, Feb. 1, 2018, the Cosmic Grind Coffee Shop on Church Street in Burlington, Vermont, started offering CBD hemp oil shots in their drinks. But don't worry, CBD is a 'non-psychoactive' extract, not to be confused with THC in marijuana. RYAN MERCER/FREE PRESS
DENVER (AP) — A federal appeals court sided with the Drug Enforcement Administration and upheld its decision that CBD is a Schedule 1 controlled substance — a major setback for the American hemp industry.
The decision, issued Monday by a three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit in San Francisco, means that hemp producers can only sell cannabidiol where it is allowed under state law.
It also means that states that allow CBD — even if they don't allow the sale of high-THC marijuana - are violating federal law, the same as states that allow recreational cannabis.
CBD producers who brought the case vowed to appeal.
"We will be appealing, and we will be funding that appeal," said Michael Brubeck, CEO of Centuria Natural Foods and a plaintiff in the case.
Based in Las Vegas, Centuria grows hemp and produces CBD products for sale in all 50 states. Centuria was joined in its challenge by the Hemp Industries Association.
CBD case history
The case started in 2016, when the DEA issued a "clarifying rule" stating that CBD is an illegal drug, because it is extracted from marijuana flowers.
Hemp producers cried foul, arguing that CBD can also be extracted from legal hemp flowers, and there is no way to tell whether extracted CBD came from marijuana or from hemp.
Brubeck and the HIA argued that the DEA was attempting to add a new substance to the Controlled Substances Act, something it cannot do.
The DEA said the extract rule was simply a clarification of existing law and that it "makes no substantive change to the government's control of any substance."
The agency also scoffed at the suggestion that CBD is being made from anything but flowering parts of the cannabis plant because cannabinoids "are found in the parts of the cannabis plant that fall within the . definition of marijuana, such as the flowering tops, resin and leaves."
The three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit agreed. Their decision means that the DEA was within its authority to clarify CBD as a "marijuana extract."
For complete article
A New Study on Medical Marijuana by Researchers from the University of California–Davis Reveals That Mold, Bacterial and other Toxic Contaminants Were Discovered in Samples from 20 out of 20 Licensed Dispensaries in Northern California.
Researchers at the University of California, Davis have discovered that medical marijuana from 20 dispensaries contain multiple fungal and bacterial contaminants that are highly toxic and can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections among cannabis users. The researchers have warned users that smoking, vaping or inhaling aerosolized marijuana is a real health risk, especially for those with chronic conditions such as lymphoma, AIDS or other conditions requiring immunosuppressing therapies. The findings will be published in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection, titled, “A microbiome assessment of medical marijuana.”
Medical Marijuana for Symptom Control and Its Issues
Legalization without proper scientific scrutiny has led to increasing acceptance in many states. A recent Gallup study showed that a majority of Americans now believe that marijuana is generally safe. Of course, when it is obtained legally and supposedly monitored by state health departments for safety, users assume marijuana dispensaries have met certain regulatory standards to protect consumer safety. But this is not true because the purity, quality and safety is not federally regulated.
Moreover, the idea that vaping is safe drug delivery method is a chimera. Inhaling marijuana in any form provides a pathway deep into the lungs where infections are most dangerous and can spread quickly through the blood. The pathogens found in study samples are all dangerous and could lead to serious illness and death.
Why Does This Matter?
The public has been told that marijuana that is legally attained from a licensed dispensary consists of pure, natural, cannabis which can be safely inhaled as a mist to deliver its supposed medicinal benefits. Moreover, the public believes that temperatures reached by smoking marijuana are high enough to kill any fungi or bacteria. This, of course, is untrue and not substantiated by any research. Medical, and now recreational, use of marijuana has been foisted on the public via the ballot box without any scientific due diligence regarding its safety or efficacy. We are now beginning to pay the piper for this ignorant miscalculation.
April 20, 2018
A Food and Drug Administration panel recommended approval of a drug made of cannabidiol on April 19 to treat two types of epilepsy. The FDA is expected to decide in June whether to accept the panel’s 13-0 recommendation to approve Epidiolex, which would would become the first drug made of cannabidiol, a compound in the cannabis plant, to gain approval from the FDA.
While the panel’s unanimous decision is not binding, the action will no doubt heighten public debate about the use of cannabidiol, medical marijuana, medical cannabis and hemp oil. Should cannabidiol, or CBD, or marijuana be legalized for medical purposes? What is the evidence that these products are beneficial? Are these products safe to use?
Those who support the use of marijuana for recreational or medicinal purposes might have found the timing of the panel’s ruling interesting. National Weed Day is April 20.
But weed is not cannabidiol, even though both come from cannabis.
As a professor of pharmacy with a special interest in epilepsy, I find it important that CBD may be a new option for the treatment of epilepsy. This new use has led me to carefully study published literature on CBD and discuss it as an option with patients who have epilepsy. Additionally, I have been involved with the American Epilepsy Society’s ongoing review of CBD as a possible treatment for epilepsy. From this perspective, I believe that CBD may offer benefits for patients with some types of epilepsy and possibly other disorders.
No high, but healing?
The cannabis plant produces hundreds of different compounds, many of which have differing effects in the body. Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the substance that is most known for its psychoactive effects, or the “high” associated with marijuana.
However, there are many other substances from the cannabis plant that also produce effects in the body. Many of these differ from THC in that they are not psychoactive – and they do not produce a “high.” Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one of those substances.
Compared to THC, CBD works at different receptors in the brain and other parts of the body. In this way, CBD is very different from THC and may offer new mechanisms of treatment. For this reason, CBD has received a great amount of attention as a possible treatment for many different disorders.
However, there are two well-designed, large studies that indicate CBD is effective in two different epilepsy syndromes. In these studies, about 40 percent of patients taking CBD had a significant reduction in specific types of seizures.
Also see THE ONLY REAL CANNABIS BASED MEDICINE – Pharmaceutically Tested, not ‘home spun quackery’!
Objectives: Previous studies have found a negative population-level correlation between medical marijuana availability in US states, and trends in medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. These studies have been interpreted as evidence that use of medical marijuana reduces medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. This study evaluates whether medical marijuana use is a risk or protective factor for medical and nonmedical prescription drug use.
Conclusions: Our findings disconfirm the hypothesis that a population-level negative correlation between medical marijuana use and prescription drug harms occurs because medical marijuana users are less likely to use prescription drugs, either medically or nonmedically. Medical marijuana users should be a target population in efforts to combat nonmedical prescription drug use.
Patrick D. Skosnik, Jose A. Cortes-Briones, and Mihály Hajós
Evidence has accumulated over the past several decades suggesting that both exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The current article presents evidence suggesting that one of the mechanisms whereby cannabinoids induce psychosis is through the alteration in synchronized neural oscillations. Neural oscillations, particularly in the gamma (30–80 Hz) and theta (4–7 Hz) ranges, are disrupted in schizophrenia and are involved in various areas of perceptual and cognitive function. Regarding cannabinoids, preclinical evidence from slice and local field potential recordings has shown that central cannabinoid receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) agonists decrease the power of neural oscillations, particularly in the gamma and theta bands. Further, the administration of cannabinoids during critical stages of neural development has been shown to disrupt the brain’s ability to generate synchronized neural oscillations in adulthood. In humans, studies examining the effects of chronic cannabis use (utilizing electroencephalography) have shown abnormalities in neural oscillations in a pattern similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Finally, recent studies in humans have also shown disruptions in neural oscillations after the acute administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis. Taken together, these data suggest that both acute and chronic cannabinoids can disrupt the ability of the brain to generate synchronized oscillations at functionally relevant frequencies. Hence, this may represent one of the primary mechanisms whereby cannabinoids induce disruptions in attention, working memory, sensory-motor integration, and many other psychosis-related behavioral effects.
Keywords: Cannabinoids, Cannabis, Gamma, Neural oscillations, Psychosis, Theta