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Data Site

Introduction: Welcome to AODstats, the Victorian alcohol and drug interactive statistics and mapping webpage.
AODstats provides information on the harms related to alcohol, illicit and pharmaceutical drug use in Victoria.

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Prevention: Avoiding exposure to marijuana is the only way to prevent an allergic reaction to the plant or drug.

A person who is using medical marijuana and suspects that they may be allergic to it should speak with their doctor to find an alternative treatment. 

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Longitudinal Data From a Representative Sample of US Adults

J Clin Psychiatry 2018;79(2):17m11522; 10.4088/JCP.17m11522 © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Objective: The current study prospectively investigated the relationship between cannabis use and cigarette smoking initiation, persistence, and relapse during a 3-year period among adults in the United States.

Methods: Analyses included respondents who completed Waves 1 (2001–2002) and 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and responded to questions about cannabis use and smoking status (n = 34,639). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of cigarette use at Wave 2 among Wave 1 daily smokers, nondaily smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers by Wave 1 cannabis use.

Results: In unadjusted analyses, Wave 1 cannabis use was associated with increased odds of Wave 2 daily and nondaily smoking for Wave 1 nonsmokers (daily OR = 2.90; 95% CI, 2.10–4.00; nondaily OR = 4.45; 95% CI, 3.97–5.00) and Wave 2 relapse to daily and nondaily smoking for Wave 1 former smokers (daily OR = 4.18, 95% CI, 3.01–5.81; nondaily OR = 5.24; 95% CI, 3.74–7.34). Wave 1 cannabis use was associated with decreased odds of Wave 2 smoking cessation for Wave 1 daily cigarette smokers (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.51–0.64). The associations remained significant for daily smoking initiation (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06–1.93), daily smoking relapse (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00–2.16), and smoking cessation (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69–0.87) after adjusting for demographics and psychiatric disorders. Associations remained significant for nondaily smoking initiation (OR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.59–2.16) and nondaily smoking relapse (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.05–2.54) after adjusting for these covariates as well as for alcohol and substance use disorders.

Conclusions: Cannabis use was associated with increased initiation of, persistence of, and relapse to cigarette smoking. Additional attention to cannabis use in tobacco control efforts and in clinical settings aimed at reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related negative consequences may be warranted.


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March 23, 2018   by David Gambrill

Employers may be hard-pressed to ban marijuana outright from the workplace once The Cannabis Act is implemented in Canada, a lawyer told delegates attending the Ontario Mutual Insurance Association (OMIA) Thursday.

“Both bills [related to The Cannabis Act, Bills C-45 and C-46] are actually silent when it comes to employment and occupational safety,” said Sandra Gogal, practice leader at Miller Thomson LLP. “At present, there is no Canadian law that regulates mandatory drug testing of employees, so when the recreational market opens up, it creates a number of interesting issues.”

For one, employers will be challenged to uphold outright prohibitions on marijuana in the workplace, based on the difference between recreational and medicinal forms of cannabis. While proposed bills allowing recreational use are still up for debate, medical use of marijuana has been legal in Canada since 1999.

“I had a call from a company the other day that said one of their employees was injured on the job, and as a matter of standard practice, they get drug-tested,” Gogal recounted. “The results came back positive, and they said, ‘Can we fire him?’ And I just said, ‘We don’t know yet whether that was for medical purposes or not.’”

The issue promises to get murkier once recreational drug use is legalized.

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Author: Mark Gold, MD

A continued effort to legalize the unrestricted access and use of marijuana in the U.S., primarily through voter initiatives, continues in spite of clinical trial evidence of lack of efficacy, increasing teen use, and reports of serious consequences from accidents to mental illness.

As marijuana is currently viewed by the public as “safe until proven dangerous” rather than dangerous until proven safe and effective, by way of randomized double blind clinical trials for a specific medical problem, we cannot make any claims regarding its medical benefit.

Risk of Psychosis

Little is known about the long-term effects of marijuana use as concern rises regarding the impact on the developing brains of young initiates. The effect of the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on subcortical neuronal connectivity and function is the most recent concern as increased prevalence of psychiatric morbidity have been reported in the medical literature— including depression, suicidality, panic, paranoia, amotivation, increased risk for psychosis and now, a six-fold increase in the risk of schizophrenia among the youngest initiates.

Why Does This Matter?

Although there is much to learn regarding the role of marijuana use and concurrent psychopathology, these findings support the hypothesis that prevention and early intervention for children and adolescents, young adults, and pregnant females is essential and a highly worthy goal. Bottom line is clear. Early onset and persistent, long-term marijuana use is associated with changes in resting-state brain function in the same dopaminergic nuclei and regions associated with brain reward, habit formulation and psychiatric illness, including psychosis.

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