A new study demonstrating the conversion of oral cannabidiol (CBD) to the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the presence of gastric fluids could explain why children given CBD to treat epilepsy had an unexpectedly high rate of adverse effects such as sleepiness and fatigue. The study, "Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiologic Fluid," is published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, a new peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Open Access Journal website.
To test whether cannabidiol delivered orally could be converted to THC by the acidic fluids in the stomach, researchers compared the by-products of CBD formed when it was exposed to normal physiological conditions or to simulated gastric fluids in the laboratory. John Merrick and Brian Lane, Pace Analytical Services (Oakdale, MN), Terri Sebree, Carol O'Neill, and Stan Banks, Zynerba Pharmaceuticals (Devon, PA), and Tony Yaksh, University of California, San Diego (La Jolla), suggest the need for alternative delivery methods that would reduce the potential for psychoactive cannabinoids to form.
"It is still not clear whether the human stomach can convert CBD into THC, but this study provides important confirmatory evidence that this may be the case," says Editor-in-Chief Daniele Piomelli, PhD, University of California-Irvine, School of Medicine.
Article: Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiological Fluid, Merrick John, Lane Brian, Sebree Terri, Yaksh Tony, O'Neill Carol, and Banks Stan L, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, doi:10.1089/can.2015.0004, published 8 April 2016.
However, what most people do not know is that the Cannabis Australia is allowing to be imported for the first time includes GMO Cannabis. GMO or Genetically Modified Organism Cannabis has been around since 2011 due to breakthroughs in research and Biotechnology by Ethan Russo and GW UK helping in the process. In 2014 even newer GMO Cannabis strains has been introduced.
In early April 2016 as we speak, an Australian delegation is traveling to Asia to look at GMO Cannabis with no THC, and in mid-2016 brings the who’s who of the GMO Biotech Cannabis community to NSW for a conference. There is a real danger that GMO will take over as the dominant medical Cannabis seed stock.
What is Wrong with GMO Cannabis? - Too early to tell, and that is the problem. The medicine people have been using and having success with is not even being offered in Australia for those that need it most. The GMO Biotech Cannabis has seen deaths (Epidiolex) in trials that have ‘passed’ and other GMO (like Sativex) have failed trials and tests. In Fairness it would be wrong to say with Cannabis with over 100 cannabinoids including CBD and THC, and totaling over 483 other compounds GMO might hold many wonders for medicine. Outside of Australia GMO is being used, tested or trialed but not instead of real Cannabis or real Cannabis products. This is where Australia is differentiating.
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Epilepsy sufferer, 13, who became poster child for medical marijuana after moving to Maine to access alternative treatment has died in her father's arms
- Cyndimae Meehan, 13, sparked media attention and changed policy. She moved to Maine from Connecticut as FDA drugs had failed her.
- Only cannabis oil effectively treated her habitual seizures, family claimed.
- Last year her family was driving force behind Maine bill that approved housing in schools for kids who need round-the-clock medical marijuana
- She passed away in her father's arms on Sunday, the family announced
Nicole MacKee - Monday, 30 May, 2016
THE importance of building a solid evidence base for the role of medicinal cannabis products must not be lost in moves to make the drug more widely available, say researchers.
In a Perspective published online by the MJA today, researchers have called for “considered management” in the wake of federal reforms to enable the cultivation of cannabis for medicinal and scientific purposes in Australia.
Sussan Ley, federal Minister for Health, described the federal legislation as the “missing piece” in the supply of cannabis to patients.
However, the MJA authors said many questions were yet to be answered, including efficacy, safety, dose, storage, and the bioavailability of the various cannabinoids via different administration routes.
Lead author Professor Jennifer Martin, chair of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Newcastle, said that there was a general perception of medicinal cannabis as a panacea for a whole range of ills.
“The overriding desire to have cannabis available has meant that this has gone much more quickly than it would for other therapies,” said Professor Martin, who is involved in the New South Wales Health-funded medicinal cannabis trials.
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Published: Thursday 5 May 2016
According to new research at Western University, marijuana is the ultimate contradiction; at least when it comes to schizophrenia.
This first-of-its-kind study, published in the journal Neuroscience, demonstrates that a chemical found in marijuana called cannabidiol, or CBD, affects the brain in a way that makes it an ideal treatment option for schizophrenia. This research comes just months after the same lab found that adolescent exposure to THC, the other major compound found in marijuana, may lead to the onset of schizophrenia in adulthood.
"CBD is acting in a way that is the exact opposite to what THC is doing," said Steven Laviolette, PhD, associate professor at Western University's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. "Within the same plant, you've got two different chemicals that are producing opposite effects in terms of psychiatric effects, molecular signaling and effects on the dopamine pathway."
Using pre-clinical models in rodents, Laviolette and his team, led by postdoctoral fellow Justine Renard, PhD, showed that CBD can normalize schizophrenia-like disturbances in the brain's dopamine system. By doing so, CBD alleviates schizophrenia-related symptoms linked to abnormal dopamine activity such as psychosis and cognitive problems. The researchers also demonstrated that the chemical is bypassing the molecular pathway in the brain that causes the negative side-effects typically seen in traditional antipsychotic medications.
"One of the biggest problems in treating schizophrenia is that there hasn't been an effective new treatment on the market in a very long time," said Laviolette. "The drugs on the market today have limited efficacy and horrible side effects; there is a desperate need for safer alternative medications."
While CBD has shown promise as a treatment for schizophrenia in previous studies, this research is the first to show exactly how it acts on the brain to have positive results in mitigating psychiatric symptoms without causing the fatigue, lack of motivation and other side-effects associated with traditional medications.
"When we measured the molecular changes that happened in the brain, we found that the effects of CBD were bypassing traditional molecular pathways that are activated by antipsychotic drugs. We think that's one of the reasons that it has better tolerability and fewer side-effects," he said.